Obesity is a serious health problem in the United States and increasingly around the world. Costs and associated diseases continue to increase. Recent studies into the causes of obesity indicate that the problem is more complex, and may have less to do with “willpower” and other such issues, than previously thought. Many obesity experts hope this research will help physicians and others rethink the way they understand and treat the problem. Skeptics, however, continue to blame inactivity and overeating for obesity. While the World Health Organization (WHO) and others call for a reduction in sugar consumption to combat obesity, the food industry says it is being unfairly targeted.