The Supreme Court's 2010 decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission legalized unlimited secret donations to political campaigns. Thirteen years later, this so-called “dark money” has become a normal part of U.S. elections, with both parties raising tens of millions in anonymous funds each election cycle. During the 2022 midterms, four dark money groups aligned with Republican or Democratic congressional leaders poured more than $295 million into federal campaigns. Proponents say such large, undisclosed donations protect political donors’ freedom of speech, but critics argue these contributions have enabled the super-wealthy to secretly control U.S. politics. They also warn that it has fostered political corruption, enabled malicious attack ads and provided a gateway for foreign entities to influence American politicians. While polls show U.S. voters ...

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