Violent crime has been declining nationally since the 1990s, but some communities, including smaller cities, suburbs and rural areas, continue to experience violence caused by street gangs. President Trump has linked gang violence to immigration rates and advocated stricter immigration enforcement as a way to fight gangs. He frequently cites murders and other crimes committed by members of the notorious MS-13 gang, including some who entered the country illegally from Central America. But gang researchers say MS-13 represents only a small portion of the nation's gang problem. Police have used civil injunctions and databases of suspected gang members to fight gang violence, but courts have ruled such tactics are discriminatory and error-prone. Meanwhile, experts say education and job-training programs can be more effective than police ...

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