President Trump's approach to trade policy — using import tariffs and other punitive measures as leverage when negotiating international agreements — is forcing many companies to restructure their global supply chains, which often took decades to develop. International trade rules established after World War II, combined with technological breakthroughs such as robotics, cloud computing and software, have resulted in intricately connected worldwide supply chains that have cut costs and boosted profits. The shifts also have cost thousands of U.S. manufacturing jobs. Trump says his strategy will change that, but many companies and economists say imposing tariffs at levels unseen since the 1930s will not rein in rivals such as China, the world's second-biggest economy and America's biggest trading partner in 2018. As U.S. companies scramble ...

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